Graha are also called Planets and they have their own traits. These are 9 energies which govern the human life on this planet. Each of these Graha or planets controls the 12 Bhav or houses in birth chart. These Grahas keep moving in the galaxy and when they pass through the rashi or zodiac signs , they give the effects for every individual.
- The Surya or Sun is the overseer of all; he is fiery, he is the light of the intellect and the instrument of the soul’s perception. In a horoscope he indicates kingship, leadership, intelligence, thought, beauty of form and movement, high fortune, relations with the gods through oracles, judgment, engagement in public affairs, action,he also indicates the father, the master, friendship, persons of repute, the honor of having one’s portrait or statue commissioned and of wearing a crown of office, high-priesthood , of the parts of the body, the Sun rules the head, the senses, the right eye, the flanks, the heart , of materials, gold; of crops, wheat and barley.
- The Chandra or Moon, who has her being from the reflection of sunlight, thus acquiring a spurious light, indicates human life at birth, the body, the mother , living together or lawful marriage, nurture housekeeping, the queen, the mistress, goods, fortune,receipts and expenses, voyages , living and wandering abroad, Of the parts of the body she governs the left eye, the stomach, the breasts, of materials, silver and crystal.
- Guru or Jupiter indicates begetting and offspring, desire, love, alliances, acquaintances, friendships with great men, abundance, salaries and large gifts, good crop yields, justice, ruler ship, political participation, honors, important religious positions, arbitration at law, credit, inheritances,brotherhood, partnerships, adoptions, security of good things, deliverance from bad things, release from chains, freedom, Of the parts of the body he governs , the feet,the reproductive organs,the right side of the body. Of materials he governs tin.
- Mangal or Mars indicates violence, wars, plundering, uproar, excess, adultery , banishment and flight, alienation of parents, captivity,rape,falsehoods, empty hopes, robbery with violence, sundering of friends, anger, battle, insults, enmities, law suits. He also brings about murders, mutilations, bloodshed; attacks of fever, ulcers, blistering, inflammation; imprisonment, tortures; masculinity, perjury, error, negotiations on bad terms; those who work with fire or iron, artisans, masons. He makes military commanders, the hunt and wild beasts , Of the parts of the body he governs the head, the fundamental, the genitals,the blood, of materials he governs iron and cloth (on account of Aries the Ram),5 wine and legumes.
- Budha or Mercury indicates education, letters, argumentation, logic, brotherhood, interpretation, embassies, numbers, calculations, geometry, commerce, youth, play, theft, community, messaging, service, profit, discoveries ,He is the giver of discernment and judgment. He is in charge of brothers, younger children, and the skills of advocacy and banking; he also governs temple-builders ,Sculptors, doctors, teachers of grammar, lawyers, orators, philosophers, architects, musicians, diviners, sacrifices , those who use paradox and craftiness in calculations and false arguments, singers who accompany mimes and those who make their living from display, vagrancy, and unsettled conditions; those who are experts and inquirers concerning celestial phenomena, undertaking that marvelous work with enjoyment and cheerfulness for the glory and profit it brings. There then follows a passage explaining that Mercury allots different professions and destinies according to his ever-changing positions on the zodiac and his aspects to the other planets.Of the parts of the body he governs, the arms, the shoulders, the fingers . . . the hearing . . . the tongue; of materials, bronze and all coinage. He governs giving and receiving, for he is the god of the common weal.
- Guru or Jupiter indicates begetting and offspring, desire, love, alliances, acquaintances, friendships with great men, abundance, salaries, large gifts, good crop yields, justice, ruler ship, political participation, honors, important religious positions, arbitration at law, credit, inheritances,brotherhood, partnerships, adoptions, security of good things, deliverance from bad things, release from chains, freedom , Of the parts of the body he governs . . . the feet . . . the reproductive organs . . . the right side of the body. Of materials he governs tin.
- Shukra or Venus is desire and erotic love. She indicates the mother and the nurturer. She causes , mirth, friendships, relationships, extra acquisitions of goods, shopping for adornments, reconciliations for good ends, marriages, refined arts and crafts, good singing voices, music, sweetness of melody, beauty of form, painting ,those who love cleanliness and playfulness ,She is the giver of weights and measures, of abundance, of work-places, of giving and taking, of laughter, hilarity,structure and meaning in the horoscope, adornment, and of aquatic creatures. She is the giver of public assistance originating from the womenfolk of the imperial household; she is the [sc. women’s] co-worker, and she amplifies the honors from such enterprises. Of the parts of the body she governs the neck and throat, the face, the lips, the organ of smell, the union of the sexual organs . Of materials she governs precious stones and many-colored adornments; of crops, the olive.
- Shani or Saturn makes those born under him petty, malicious, careworn, self-disparaging, solitary, deceitful ,harsh, downcast, dissemblers,desiccated, robed in black, importunate, miserable, He causes humiliation, laziness, inactivity, hindrances, long drawn out litigation, reversals, secrets, oppression, fetters, griefs, accusations, tears, loss of parents, captivity, banishment. He makes farmers because of his structure and meaning in the horoscope, lordship of the soil; also contractors, tax collectors, and men of violence. He brings things to completion; he makes high reputation, distinguished status, executives, custodians, step-fathers. Of materials he governs lead, wood, and stone; of the parts of the body, the legs, the knees. the kidneys and the internal organs. Of illnesses he is indicative of those that come about through coldness and moisture . He makes people single or widowed, orphaned or childless. He causes violent death in water, by strangulation, in prison, or by dysentery.
Westerners call these seven planets in their own Greek names which are mentioned as follows :